'HARMONY', in music, the sound of two or more notes heard simultaneously. In practice, this broad definition can also include some instances of notes sounded one after the other.

Definitions taken from Britannica.com at https://www.britannica.com/art/harmony-music (15th October 2019)

Please note that tonality and harmony are always linked together as musical elements...one cannot be described without looking at the other.

To remember tonality and harmony, we remember:

Key Modulations (make) Functional Modes Change Cadences Chromatically
Pedals Circle Dissonance Augmenting Dim Dom Nea

This involves the majority of music analysis points that you will need.

  • Change

This is the rate of harmonic change, therefore, how often do your chords change in a    piece of music.

  • Cadences

A cadence point is usually used to signify the end of a phrase or section

Complete sections often feature a Perfect (V -> I) or Plagal (IV -> I) cadence at the end to resolve nicely back to your tonic chord.

​To keep a piece of music going is by using an Imperfect (I -> V) or Interrupted (V -> VI).


  • Chromatically

Moving by semitones, often as accidentals.​

  • Pedals


A Pedal note is a sustained tone that is constantly played during a section of music. Most commonly on bass however upper register pedal tones are used as well.

  • Circle

This relates to the Circle of Fifths, shown in Tonality section, moving by 5th in a key.


  • Dissonance


Notes that creates an instability within its harmony to create tension. 

  • Dom

This refers to a dominant 7th chord which made of a major triad with b7 extension.

  • Nea

A special type of chord that is a lowered major II chord that is in first inversion.

e.g. in C major/minor a Neapolitan chord in this key would be a Db major (Db F Ab)

These chords are often used at cadence points.









Functional Tonality




Functional Harmony



Other Points